Most people have heard it is important to get enough calcium and vitamin D to grow and maintain strong bones that can resist fractures. But few have heard of the bone strengthening effects of vitamin K. There are two main forms of vitamin K. Vitamin K1 is called phyoquinone or phytonadione and is found mainly in green vegetables like spinach, broccoli, lettuce, and kale. Vitamin K2 is made up of menaquinones that can be synthesized in the human gut by micro-organisms. There are several kinds of these menaquinones and small amounts occur in meats and fermented products like cheeses and natto. However, about 90% of the vitamin K in the American diet comes from vegetables. There is also a synthetic form of vitamin K3 but it is not recommended for human consumption.
People who have heard of vitamin K may be familiar with its important role in blood coagulation but few realize it is also necessary for making a protein called osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is a protein needed to bind calcium to the bone matrix. An inadequate intake of vitamin K may reduce this protein to the point where bone mineral density is reduced and bone structure is compromised.
A recent meta-analysis examined 7 studies in which elderly subjects were given either 15 (one study) or 45mg of vitamin K2 or a placebo. Remarkably those taking the supplements of vitamin K had reductions in hip fractures of 77% compared to those given a placebo. Fractures of the vertebrae were cut by 60% and all other fractures were reduced by 81%. None of the individual studies reported any serious side effects from the vitamin K supplements although there did appear to be some increase in GI problems. The authors of this study conclude ?From a clinical perspective, the results of this review suggest that patients at risk for fractures should be encouraged to consume a diet rich in vitamin K, which is chiefly obtained from green leafy vegetables and certain vegetable oils.?1
By James J. Kenney, PhD, RD, FACN.
1. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1256-61
Judy’s passion for cooking began with helping her grandmother make raisin oatmeal for breakfast. From there she earned her first food service job at 15, was accepted to the world-famous Culinary Institute of America at 18 (where she graduated second in her class), and went on to the Fachschule Richemont in Switzerland where she focused on pastry arts and baking. After a decade in food service for Hyatt Hotels, Judy launched Food and Health Communications to focus on flavor and health. She graduated with Summa Cum Laude distinction from Johnson and Wales University with a BS in Culinary Art, holds a master’s degree in Food Business from the Culinary Institute of America, 2 art certificates from UC Berkeley Extension, and runs a food photography studio where her love is creating fun recipes.
Judy received The Culinary Institute of America’s Pro Chef II certification, the American Culinary Federation Bronze Medal, Gold Medal, and ACF Chef of the Year. Her enthusiasm for eating nutritiously and deliciously leads her to constantly innovate and use the latest in nutritional science and Dietary Guidelines to guide her creativity, from putting new twists on fajitas to adapting Italian brownies to include ingredients like toasted nuts and cooked honey. Judy’s publishing company, Food and Health Communications, is dedicated to her vision that everyone can make food that tastes as good as it is for you.