Just when you bought that favorite Merlot to share with friends, new research published in the journal Aging and Mental Health may have dropped a wet blanket on your happy hour.

A recent research study suggests that drinking 4 glasses of wine or four pints of beer per week raises the risk of dementia.

Scientists recently discovered that even moderate drinking may impact short-term memory as well as spatial awareness- the way we perceive the space surrounding our bodies. They advise that failing to limit alcohol could see these issues increase dementia risk.

The study done in the UK compares advise from the NHS (National Health Service) to limit alcohol to a maximum of 14 drinks per week, which is higher than 4 pints (8 units) of alcohol.

Data from over 15,000 people aged 50 and up were evaluated and tracked for two years. Amount of alcohol including quantity and frequency was analyzed and tests were done to measure thinking skills.

Individuals reaching “risky levels” of alcohol consumption (equal to 8 units per week), experienced a bigger decline in short-term memory and spatial awareness. Even small declines in mental deterioration could lead to the diagnosis of dementia.

The study conducted at King’s College in London was spearheaded by Dr. Tony Rao, a psychiatrist with over 20 years of experience in research of alcohol use in older people. He notes that none of the subjects suffered from dementia at the beginning of the research, but those who drank at higher levels were more apt to show cognitive decline, which may eventually lead to dementia.

Heavy or binge drinkers are not the only ones at risk. It’s possible to go over the threshold with drinking two units of alcohol per week- which equals 4 glasses of wine or 4 pints of beer.

Dr. Rao notes this quells the myth that alcohol may be good for the brain. He added: 'Using tests to pick up this cognitive impairment early can protect the brain and prevent further decline into dementia. Dementia may be prevented in individuals found early through these tests who reduce alcohol intake or quit entirely. It could improve public health.

This research provides more sustenance to the advice for people to drink in moderation, per Dr. Rosa Sancho of Alzheimer’s Research UK.

Per the NHS, men and women should not drink more than 14 units of alcohol per week on a regular basis.
This is equivalent to six pints of 4 percent beer, six small glasses of 13.4 percent wine or seven double shots of 40 percent spirits.

Alcohol intake is also known to impact other parts of the body including the risk for hypertension, heart disease, liver disease and cancer. 1

Below are “not so tipsy” tips to reduce alcohol intake:
1. Try dry January. Studies show that forgoing alcohol for one month may reduce future alcohol consumption. 2
2. Limit alcohol consumption to weekends only. Think how much better your sleep will be!
3. Drink a bottle of water between each alcoholic drink. This will reduce alcohol intake and reduce risk of dehydration and hangover.
4. Make mocktails using flavored seltzer water.
5. Keep a “tip jar” for money not spent on wine, beer or spirits. Treat yourself to something special with the money.
6. Celebrate holidays with sparkling cider.
7. Pay attention to peer pressure. Avoid being coerced to drink in social situations.
8. Don’t drink and drive. This is a no brainer.

Lisa Andrews, MEd, RD, LD

References:
1. Rao R, Creese B, Aarsland D, Kalafatis C, Khan Z, Corbett A, Ballard C. Risky drinking and cognitive impairment in community residents aged 50 and over. Aging Ment Health. 2021 Nov 12:1-8. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2021.2000938. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34766529.
2. de Visser RO, Nicholls J. Temporary abstinence during Dry January: predictors of success; impact on well-being and self-efficacy. Psychol Health. 2020 Nov;35(11):1293-1305. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2020.1743840. Epub 2020 Mar 27. PMID: 32216557.

Become a premium member today and get access to hundreds of articles and handouts plus our premium tools!

Upcoming Posts


January 2022

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Fish, Vascular Lesions, and Dementia Risk

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Tips for Building an Anti-Inflammatory Eating Pattern

New Products Available Now

 
Published on Categories nutrition, breakfast, alzheimers, prevention, lunch and dinner, beverages, food and health, snacks, nutrition education resources, ingredients, food news, makeovers, desserts, menu planning, Premium, longevityTags , , , ,

 

When it comes to the holidays, diet is truly a 4-letter word. The majority of Americans want to have their cake and eat it, too. Who can blame them? From holiday traditions to treats shared by neighbors and friends, food has always been a way to celebrate the season.

But for individuals with chronic medical conditions, the holidays can wreak havoc on their health. For someone trying to manage poorly controlled diabetes, a box of candy or homemade fudge may not be the best gift. Even so, someone with diabetes should still be able to enjoy sweets in moderation.

If an individual is suffering from high blood pressure or congestive heart failure, some tweaks in recipes to reduce sodium may be a welcome way to prevent a trip to the emergency room. Below are some ways to ‘trim the treats’ when family or friends need to watch their diets.

Sweet subs

Most recipes can withstand a 25% reduction in white or brown sugar without significantly changing the taste. For example, if a recipe that calls for 1 cup of sugar, reduce the sugar to ¾ of a cup.
Instead of heavy frosting on a cake, dust the cake with powdered sugar or chopped nuts as a garnish. Berries or other fresh fruit is a sweet topper for cakes in place of frosting, too. This adds color, texture, fiber and nutrients.

Some sugar substitutes such as Splenda Stevia granulated sweetener are appropriate for baking and can be used in a 1:1 ratio. This type of sweetener does not caramelize like sugar, so may work best in cakes or quick breads.
Splenda allulose is a sweetener that caramelizes when baked and can be used in a 1:1 ratio for regular granular sugar.

Fat replacers

Depending on what you use, reducing fat may increase the amount of carbs in the recipe. Fruit purees like pureed prunes or applesauce work well in quick breads or cakes to reduce fat. These will add more moisture to the dessert.
A “flax egg” made with 1 tablespoon flaxseed and 3 tablespoons of water may be used to reduce saturated fat in a recipe or make the recipe vegan. Whisk the two together and allow to sit for 5 minutes before using.

Using 25% less fat in cookies or swapping some of the butter with oil can reduce saturated fat in recipes. Try 1 ½ sticks of butter instead of 2 sticks in drop cookies such as chocolate chip or oatmeal cookies.

Canola, corn or avocado oil may also be used in place of butter or lard in cake or quick bread recipes to reduce saturated fat.

Greek or plain yogurt can be used in place of butter or oil in recipes, but may add more moisture. Use 75% of the amount of fat in a recipe with yogurt (i.e. ¾ cup yogurt for 1 cup oil or butter). Yogurt works well in cakes, quick breads and brownies.

Cut the sodium

There’s a handful of ways to reduce sodium in baked goods. For starters, leave out the salt in cakes, cookies and breads. You likely won’t miss it.

Another option for cookies is to substitute rolled oats for part of the flour. Flour is high in sodium. Using rolled oats not only reduces the sodium content but also increases the fiber in baked goods.
In soups, stews or sauces, use low-sodium broth or season with herbs or spices such as oregano, basil, rosemary, cumin, paprika or other spices.

Replace bacon with low-sodium ham in green beans, soup or other items. Or- go meat free and use onions, garlic or herbs and spices instead.

Do with less

Another way to ‘trim the treats’ is to make half a batch of cookies or brownies instead of a full batch. Cookies can also be rolled smaller and cake and/or brownies may be cut into smaller pieces.

You can also serve seasonal fresh or dried fruit for dessert! These tips can be used any time of year to make your holidays a little lighter.

Lisa Andrews, MEd, RD, LD

Become a premium member today and get access to hundreds of articles and handouts plus our premium tools!

Upcoming Posts


January 2022

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Fish, Vascular Lesions, and Dementia Risk

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Tips for Building an Anti-Inflammatory Eating Pattern

New Products Available Now

 
Published on Categories nutrition, breakfast, alzheimers, prevention, lunch and dinner, beverages, food and health, snacks, nutrition education resources, ingredients, food news, makeovers, desserts, menu planning, Premium, longevityTags , , , ,

 

Does this colder weather make you or your clients shy away from salads?

We're here to help!

After all, salads aren’t just for spring or summer and they don’t always have to be cold! Salads can include both raw and cooked vegetables, tubers, grains and a variety of fresh or dried fruit. They may also include nuts or seeds, dairy products, beans, or even lentils.

Research shows that a diet high in fruits and vegetables is not only beneficial in reducing the risk of cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, but also depression. A study in young adults aged 18 to 25 in the US found that those with highest consumption of raw fruits and vegetables had higher positive moods and lower symptoms of depression.

So, lettuce explore what makes a great salad!

All About That Base:

Iceberg lettuce often gets dissed as pointless because it’s not as nutritious as spinach, kale, or arugula. Does that matter? Maybe, but maybe not. Iceberg can be a vehicle to support other more nutrient-dense veggies. Why not add chopped tomatoes, shredded cabbage, pepper strips, or other greens to a base of iceberg lettuce?

Arugula makes a great salad base with its soft texture and peppery taste. “Pear” it with chunks of pears, or apples, chopped walnuts or pecans, a handful of blue cheese crumbles, and a drizzle of balsamic vinaigrette.

Kale is a great salad base, but needs a little TLC to soften its rough edges. After cleaning and ripping kale for salad, place it in a zip lock bag and massage it for a few minutes until it’s shiny. This will help to wilt the kale, which softens the texture and sweetens the taste a bit. Kale salads can be dressed ahead of time, which help them wilt as well.

Spinach is a good source of beta-carotene, potassium, and vitamin C and makes a pretty base for multiple salads. Like arugula, spinach goes well with sweet or savory fixings. Try it with hard-boiled eggs or chunks of albacore tuna and a mustard dressing.

Add Color:

The more colorful your salad, the more enticing it looks to eat and more nutritious it becomes.

  • Add chunks of cucumbers, grape tomatoes, avocado slices, green or kalamata olives, or pickled onions to your greens.
  • Chickpeas, black beans, lentils, or kidney beans also add color in addition to soluble fiber, zinc and protein to your salad.
  • Try chopped apricots, dried cherries, raisins or dates in your next bowl. Mandarin oranges, grapefruit, cara cara or blood oranges add color and texture as well as vitamin C, and potassium to your bowl. Fruit goes well with a ginger-based or citrus dressing.
  • Almond slivers, pumpkin seeds, and chopped walnuts, oh my! Nuts and seeds of all kinds are a great addition to salads. They add crunch and color to your bowl as well as magnesium, zinc, and fiber.

Make It a Meal:

Whether you call it a grain bowl or hearty salad, adding grains to greens gives your meal great texture, color and substance. Cooled quinoa or brown rice are gluten-free options that provide fiber and complex carbohydrates. Golden potatoes go well with green beans for a savory salad while sweet potatoes pair well with citrus and greens.

Adding a bit of strong cheese like Parmesan, Asiago, blue cheese or feta gives a salad an extra kick of flavor too.

Blue cheese often goes well with salads containing fruit while Parmesan, Asiago and feta cheese are nice in salads with tomatoes and cucumbers.

Drizzle, Don’t Drown

A perfect salad dressing coats your greens, grains, fruit and more but doesn’t cause your salad to go soggy. Combine equal parts of your favorite acid (citrus juice or vinegar) with your oil of choice (canola, olive, peanut or sesame) and whisk it all together! Add-ins like a shot of Dijon mustard, grated ginger or Greek yogurt add taste, tang, and texture to your dressing.

No matter what you add to your salad, go for more fruits and vegetables every day!

By Lisa Andrews, MEd, RD, LD

Reference:

Brookie KL, Best GI, Conner TS. Intake of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Is Associated With Better Mental Health Than Intake of Processed Fruits and Vegetables. Front Psychol. 2018 Apr 10;9:487. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00487. PMID: 29692750; PMCID: PMC5902672.

Remember to download your free handout!

Become a premium member today and get access to hundreds of articles and handouts plus our premium tools!

Upcoming Posts


January 2022

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Fish, Vascular Lesions, and Dementia Risk

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Tips for Building an Anti-Inflammatory Eating Pattern

New Products Available Now

 
Published on Categories nutrition, breakfast, alzheimers, prevention, lunch and dinner, beverages, food and health, snacks, nutrition education resources, ingredients, food news, makeovers, desserts, menu planning, Premium, longevityTags , , , ,

 

I don’t remember when I stumbled on the Comice pear, but I knew I’d found something special. Comice pears are a French variety of pears that are only available for a few months during pear season typically September through December. It’s also known as a the Doyenné Du Comice, European or Christmas pear as it’s often used in fruit baskets during the holidays.

If you’ve never had one- I suggest you seek it out! A little squattier than the average pear, Comice pears have a floral aroma, creamy texture and super sweet taste. Unlike red pears, the skin is smoother and the fruit is very juicy. Let’s explore other pears!

Bartlett Pears
Bartlett pears are the quintessential pear being the most popular worldwide. They’re light green in color but turn pale to darker yellow when ripe. The more golden the pear, the riper and sweeter it is.

Unlike other fruit, pears are best picked early and allowed to ripen off the tree. Why you ask? Natural fibers (lignans and cellulose) develop in the fruit and can cause a gritty texture.

Red bartlett pears also exist, but aren’t as common as green pears. Flavor and texture are very similar to green Bartlett pears.

Bosc Pears
Bosc pears are a bit of an anomaly. They’re dark khaki or brownish in color and have a firmer, thicker skin than other varieties. Their color is often described as “russet”.

The neck of a Bosc pear is longer and the base is full and round, similar to other pears. Bosc pears are sweet, juicy and delicious on their own or used in baked goods such as pies or cakes.

D’anjou Pears
Sound French? Because it is! D’anjou is another European pear that’s a little shorter than Bartlett, but just as sweet. D’anjou pears are also available in a red variety.

Similar to other pears, D’anjou are best when they ripen on your kitchen counter, but unlike Bartlett pears, these don’t change color during ripening. Test the ripeness by pressing on the neck of the pear. It should give slightly, but not completely damage the skin.

Nutritionally, pears are a good source of soluble fiber, the type that lowers total cholesterol and helps manage blood sugar. They also contain small amounts of vitamin C, potassium, and magnesium.

How can you enjoy pears? Let me count the ways…

  1. Enjoy a pear solo or with a handful of almonds or pistachios.
  2. Add diced pears to your morning oatmeal with a dash of cinnamon.
  3. Try roasting pears with shredded ginger a dusting of brown sugar.
  4. Include sliced pears on your next charcuterie board.
  5. Add chopped pears to Greek yogurt with chopped walnuts or ground flaxseed.
  6. Try sliced pears with chopped dates and a sprinkle of blue cheese for a delicious appetizer.
  7. Toss chopped pears into a spinach or arugula salad with dried cherries or cranberries.
  8. Use over-ripe pears in a compote and serve over pork or chicken.

By Lisa Andrews, MEd, RD, LD

Don't miss your FREE handout all about pears!

Become a premium member today and get access to hundreds of articles and handouts plus our premium tools!

Upcoming Posts


January 2022

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Fish, Vascular Lesions, and Dementia Risk

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Tips for Building an Anti-Inflammatory Eating Pattern

New Products Available Now

 
Published on Categories nutrition, breakfast, alzheimers, prevention, lunch and dinner, beverages, food and health, snacks, nutrition education resources, ingredients, food news, makeovers, desserts, menu planning, Premium, longevityTags , , , ,

 

As the season gets cooler, the number of coffees and culinary confections containing pumpkin pie spice multiply. From bread to lattes, we just can’t seem to get enough of this amazing fall blend!

What is pumpkin spice and where did it originate?

Pumpkin pie spice is a blend of 5 spices including cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, cloves, and allspice. Some blends may also contain mace (made from the skin of a nutmeg seed). Spice giant McCormick started Pumpkin Pie Spice in 1934 as a shortcut for flavoring pumpkin pie. Despite its name, pumpkin pie spice does not contain any pumpkin.

Why is it popular?

Pumpkin pie spice is popular for a number of reasons. For starters, it’s a seasonal flavor that has a short window of availability. The psychology of “limited time only” is appealing to some people. Think of it as the McRib of Autumn.

Pumpkin is a symbol of American culture. It’s native to North America and is the oldest domesticated crop in the new world. Pumpkin sustained colonists when their crops from Europe failed. The same combo platter of spices was widely used in colonial American cooking. Cinnamon is the predominant spice in pumpkin pie spice, which is frequently used in apple pie and cake recipes too.

In addition, the availability of pumpkin pie spice in foods marks the start of fall and all the memories of holidays that go along with it.

Is there any nutritional value in pumpkin spice?

Spices come from a variety of plants and therefore, may contain antioxidants and phytochemicals that help prevent disease. For example, cinnamon comes from bark while ginger comes from a root. Nutmeg originates from a pod and allspice comes from a dried berry.

Cinnamon: the base of the spice and used in highest amount. Cinnamon has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. It may also aid in blood sugar regulation.

Allspice: contains glycosides and polyphenols with antibacterial, hypotensive, anti-neuralgic and analgesic properties. Also, may contain anti breast cancer and anti-prostate cancer properties.

Ginger: often used as an anti-nausea treatment or to settle an upset stomach. It’s also a source of antioxidants.

Nutmeg: contains anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and analgesic properties. It’s been used in high doses as a hallucinogenic drug. Nutmeg toxicity may mimic many other neurological, cardiac and psychiatric conditions. Women that are breastfeeding should avoid nutmeg in high amounts.

Cloves: similar to nutmeg, cloves have anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant properties. It contains a substance called eugenol which is a powerful antioxidant that may be beneficial in protecting the liver.

What are some ways to enjoy pumpkin spice?

Don’t just go for pumpkin spice lattes! There are loads of ways to enjoy pumpkin spice. Here are a few favorites:

  • Add a dash of pumpkin pie spice to your morning oatmeal or breakfast cereal.
  • Sprinkle pumpkin pie spice over apple or banana slices.
  • Mix pumpkin pie spice into peanut or almond butter and spread on a bagel or toast
  • Add pumpkin pie spice to yogurt and use as a dip for seasonal fruit.
  • Blend pumpkin pie spice into pancake or waffle batter.
  • Make spiced nuts using pumpkin pie spice.
  • Use pumpkin pie spice as a rub for pork.
  • Dust sweet potatoes with pumpkin pie spice and serve roasted or mashed.

By Lisa Andrews, MEd, RD, LD

PS: Here's a handout that you can use in your next display or newsletter about pumpkin spice! Use it soon -- it won't be seasonal for long!

Become a premium member today and get access to hundreds of articles and handouts plus our premium tools!

Upcoming Posts


January 2022

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Fish, Vascular Lesions, and Dementia Risk

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Tips for Building an Anti-Inflammatory Eating Pattern

New Products Available Now

 
Published on Categories nutrition, breakfast, alzheimers, prevention, lunch and dinner, beverages, food and health, snacks, nutrition education resources, ingredients, food news, makeovers, desserts, menu planning, Premium, longevityTags , , , ,

 

With lingering Halloween candy and the high probability of desserts with the upcoming holidays, our aging brains could take a hit.

A recent study on aging rats found a link to a diet high in processed food and signs of memory loss after just four weeks. The upside? Adding omega-3-fatty acid supplements helped prevent memory problems and decreased inflammatory effects in older rats.

The changes in cognition were not observed in young adult rats consuming a processed diet, but it’s never too soon to start limiting these foods.

The foods used in the study mimicked convenient human foods that are highly-processed for long shelf life such as potato chips and various snacks, frozen dinners, pasta, pizza and deli meats that contain preservatives.

These types of highly-processed foods are also linked with obesity and type 2 diabetes, which means older adults may want to cut their intake of them and add more foods high in omega-3-fatty acids (including salmon or flaxseeds) to their diets. Remember, negative effects of processed foods were seen in as little as four weeks.

The senior study author Ruth Barrientos, an investigator at the Ohio State University Institute for Behavioral Medicine and Research noted, “The fact we're seeing these effects so quickly is a little bit alarming." She notes that the findings suggest that intake of processed food can negatively impact an aging brain in very little time. These changes can quickly increase the likelihood of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. Reducing processed foods and adding more foods rich in omega-3-fatty acids may help prevent or slow the process.

Dr. Barriento’s research looks at how everyday events in life like surgery, an infection or an unhealthy diet may trigger inflammation in the aging brain. Her specific focus is on the hippocampus and amygdala areas. Her work adds to previous research that a high-fat diet in the short term can progress to memory loss and brain inflammation in older animals and that DHA levels are reduced in the hippocampus and amygdala in the brains of aging rats.

Docosahexaenoic acid (AKA DHA) is an omega-3-fatty acid found with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in fish and other seafood. Some of the functions of DHA in the brain include a role in fighting the inflammatory response. This study is the first in evaluating its ability to fight brain inflammation initiated by processed food.

Researchers randomly assigned 3-month and 24-month old male rats to normal chow (32% protein, 54% complex carbs and 14% fat), a highly-processed diet (nearly 20% protein, 63% refined carbs and 17% fat) or the same processed diet with the addition of DHA.

Older rats that consumed the processed diet alone compared to younger rats on any diet and older rats that ate a diet with DHA-supplemented processed food experienced activation of genes linked to pro-inflammatory proteins and other inflammation markers in the hippocampus and amygdala. In addition, older rats on the processed food diet showed signs of memory loss during behavioral tests that were not apparent in the young rats.

Abnormalities in the amygdala were observed based on the lack of display of anticipatory fear behaviors in response to a danger cue. In humans, the amygdala is often implicated with emotional memories including fear and anxiety-producing events. If this part of the brain is damaged, normal cues that inform the brain of danger could be overlooked or result in poor decision making.

Results showed that DHA-supplemented processed-food diets in the older rats prevented increased inflammatory responses in the brain as well as behavioral cues of memory loss. It’s unclear the precise dose of DHA, nutrients, or calories consumed by the animals, which had unlimited access to food. A significant weight gain was observed in both older and younger rats. DHA supplementation did not protect against weight gain associated with the highly processed food diet.

Barrientos discourages people from thinking that this gives a green light on highly-processed food as long as DHA supplements are taken. Focusing on a healthy diet overall is a better bet. These types of foods may be marketed as low in fat, but tend to be highly-processed with refined carbohydrates and minimal dietary fiber. Consumers should focus on the quality of carbohydrates and fiber when reviewing nutrition information.

How can healthcare providers discourage highly-processed food?
Below are some tips:

  1. Swap processed instant cereals with regular oats, cinnamon, chopped nuts, and a drizzle of honey or maple syrup.
  2. Snack on fruit or whole grain crackers with nut butter in place of processed crackers and peanut butter.
  3. Replace snack chips with lightly salted nuts or seeds.
  4. Enjoy dates, raisins, or dried apricots in place of sugary desserts.
  5. Add chia seeds or ground flaxseeds to oatmeal, yogurt, or salads to boost omega-3-fatty acid intake.
  6. Choose fatty fish twice per week (when able) including salmon, mackerel, and albacore tuna.
  7. Reduce fast food consumption when possible. Prepare a few meals per week that include beans and lentils.
  8. Purchase a rotisserie chicken in place of deli meat. This may be used for sandwiches, soups, or salads.
  9. Limit intake of processed sausages, hot dogs, and other cured meats.
  10. Add chopped veggies to eggs, sandwiches, soups, and grain dishes to boost fiber, vitamin, and mineral intake.

By Lisa Andrews, MEd, RD, LD

Journal Reference:

Michael J. Butler, Nicholas P. Deems, Stephanie Muscat, Christopher M. Butt, Martha A. Belury, Ruth M. Barrientos. Dietary DHA prevents cognitive impairment and inflammatory gene expression in aged male rats fed a diet enriched with refined carbohydrates. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2021; 98: 198 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.08.214

Printable Handout:

Become a premium member today and get access to hundreds of articles and handouts plus our premium tools!

Upcoming Posts


January 2022

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Fish, Vascular Lesions, and Dementia Risk

 
UP NEXT IN Food and Health, Prevention
Tips for Building an Anti-Inflammatory Eating Pattern

New Products Available Now

 
Published on Categories nutrition, breakfast, alzheimers, prevention, lunch and dinner, beverages, food and health, snacks, nutrition education resources, ingredients, food news, makeovers, desserts, menu planning, Premium, longevityTags , , , ,